General Guidelines and Standards for Surfacewater , Lake, Pond, Stream,
Watershed Monitoring Programs
General Guidance for Educational and Applied Research
Stream Flow and Real-Time
Water Quality Monitoring
Stream Assessments, Biological Monitoring,
Remote Data Logging
TMr. Brian Oram is a licensed professional geologist
and soil scientist with over 20 years experience in applied earth and
environmental sciences. Mr. Oram has conducted research and consulting
projects related to acid mine drainage ( AMD ), mine drainage,
lake and stream monitoring programs, wetland creation and monitoring, filtration
plant performance evaluations, testing new point of use water treatment devices
and systems, hydrogeological evaluations, geological investigations, soils
testing, soil morphological evaluations, water well
drilling and construction, drinking water testing, mail order water testing kit
program, and land reclamation. Mr. Oram has also been involved with Citizen Monitoring and other Environmental Training Programs for groups
within the United States, Europe, and even the former Soviet Union.
15 to 25 C
4 mg/L or more desirable
Some Guidelines Aquatic life
Warm water fish 5.0 mg/L
Cold water fish 6.0
Estuarine biota 5.0
5.0 to 9.0 tolerance most fish;
6.5 to 8.2 best fishing waters
0 - 60 Soft Water
61 -120 Mod. Hard Water
121 - 180 Hard Water
181+ Very hard Water
Nitrate (NO 3)
mg as N/L
< 0.1 mg/L Unpolluted Water
mg as N/L
0.1 mg/L and up Domestic or Agricultural Waste
0.06 mg/L - Can cause gill damage
0.2 to 0.3 mg/L Lethal to Trout
Phosphorous mg P/L
Recommended Max. 0.1 mg/L
Chlorides (mg Cl/L)
170 mg/L or less best for fish
less than 20 colonies/100 ml desirable.
200/100 ml Max for direct contact recreational use.
1000/100 ml Max for indirect recreational use.
BOD (biochemical oxygen
demand - 5 day)
1 to 2 mg/L Very Clean
3 to 5 mg/L Mod. Clean
over 5 mg/L Serious Pollution
Note on Dissolved Oxygen:
Environmental Effects: The introduction of excess organic matter
or soluble organic materials may result in a depletion of oxygen from an aquatic
system through chemical or biological oxygen consumption or demand. Exposure to low
dissolved oxygen levels (<5 - 6 mg/l ) may not directly kill an organism, but will increase its susceptibility to other environmental stresses. Exposure to < 30%
saturation (<2 mg/l oxygen) for one to four days may kill most of the biota in a system. If oxygen-requiring organisms perish, the remaining organisms will be
air-breathing insects and anaerobic (not requiring oxygen) bacteria.
Recreation: If all oxygen is depleted, aerobic decomposition ceases and
organic decomposition or processing is accomplished through anaerobic reactions. Anaerobic microbes obtain energy from oxygen bound to other molecules such as sulfate
compounds and can result in the mobilization of many otherwise
insoluble compounds, such as Acid Mine Drainage. The breakdown of sulfate compounds will often impart a "rotten-egg" smell to the water, affecting its aesthetic value and preventing
Warm Water Fish: Prefer water temperatures ranging between 18-29 degrees C (65-85 degrees F); includes fish such as smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, and
Cold Water Fish: Fish such as trout and salmon; preferred water temperature ranges between 7-18 degrees C (45-65 degrees F); coolwater fish, such as striped
bass, northern pike, and walleye, have a range between that of coldwater and warmwater fish.
Note on pH:
Environmental Effects: A reduction in pH (more acidic) may allow the release of toxic metals that would otherwise be sorbed to sediment
can become liberated into overlying water. Once mobilized, these metals are available for uptake by
organisms and is related to the rate of biological activity and level of the
pollutant in the environment. Metal uptake can cause extreme
physiological damage to aquatic life. Aluminum concentrations of 0.1 - 0.3 mg/l will increase mortality, retard growth, gonadal development, and egg production of fish. Even if the aluminum
availability is low, recent studies have shown that acidity alone may cause mortality in developing brook trout.
Acidification of the aquatic system can shift the biological
community to one that is less desirable from a recreation and aesthetic uses,
reduce decomposition rates and nutrient cycling, reduce the variety and
distribution of the biological organisms that create a health ecosystem, and
make other compounds like ammonia and trace metals per toxic..
More on Turbidity
Environmental Effects: Turbidity is not commonly used to
evaluate surface water quality. Turbidity is basically a measure of the amount of light intercepted by a given volume of water due to the presence of suspended and dissolved matter and microscopic biota.
Increasing the turbidity of the water decreases the amount of light that penetrates the water
column, which can then causes changes in the aquatic ecosystem.
These changes could include result in a reduction in photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton, algae,
and macrophytes, which would reduce the primary productivity of the system and
may result in causing less favorable Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) to become
established. Turbidity can also result in the reduce of dissolved oxygen,
destroying the habitat of macroinvertebrates, and cause gill damage/abrasion.