The Hydrological Cycle - Water Budgets
Written by Mr. Brian Oram, PG
What is a Hydrologic Budget?
The hydrologic budget consists of inflows, outflows, and storage as shown in the following equation:
Inflow = Outflow +/- Changes in Storage
Inflows add water to the different parts of the hydrologic system, while outflows remove water. Storage is the retention of water by parts of the system. Because water movement is cyclical, an inflow for one part of the system is an outflow for another.
Precipitation = Evapotranspiration + Total Runoff, where
Total Runoff = Direct Runoff + Base flow (groundwater component of stream flow)
Looking at an aquifer as an example, percolation of water into the ground is an inflow to the aquifer. Discharge of groundwater from the aquifer to a stream is an outflow (also an inflow for the stream). Over time, if inflows to the aquifer are greater than its outflows, the amount of water stored in the aquifer will increase. Conversely, if the inflows to the aquifer are less than the outflows, the amount of water stored decreases. Inflows and outflows can occur naturally or result from human activity.
The earth's water supply remains constant, but man is capable of altering the cycle of that fixed supply. Population increases, rising living standards, and industrial and economic growth have placed greater demands on our natural environment. Our activities can create an imbalance in the hydrologic equation and can affect the quantity and quality of natural water resources available to current and future generations.
Water use by households, industries, and farms have increased. People demand clean water at reasonable costs, yet the amount of fresh water is limited and the easily accessible sources have been developed. As the population increases, so will our need to withdraw more water from rivers, lakes and aquifers, threatening local resources and future water supplies. A larger population will not only use more water but will discharge more wastewater. Domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes, including the intensive use of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers, often overload water supplies with hazardous chemicals and bacteria. Also, poor irrigation practices raise soil salinity and evaporation rates. These factors contribute to a reduction in the availability of potable water, putting even greater pressure on existing water resources.
Large cities and urban sprawl particularly affect local climate and hydrology. Urbanization is accompanied by accelerated drainage of water through road drains and city sewer systems, which even increases the magnitude of urban flood events. This alters the rates of infiltration, evaporation, and transpiration that would otherwise occur in a natural setting. The replenishing of ground water aquifers does not occur or occurs at a slower rate.
Together, these various effects determine the amount of water in the system and can result in extremely negative consequences for river watersheds, lake levels, aquifers, and the environment as a whole. Therefore, it is vital to learn about and protect our water resources.
Precipitation and Temperature
Pennsylvania Precipitation Data/Maps
US Geological Survey, Water Resources of Pennsylvania
SRBC Streamflow Information
Calculate Evapotranspiration Rate
DAILYET a computer program to calculate evapotranspiration
Spreadsheet Method for ET Calculation
Soil Water Budget
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