Water Research Center
Ozone in Water Treatment
Ozone has a greater disinfection effectiveness against bacteria and viruses
compared to chlorination. In addition, the oxidizing properties can also
reduce the concentration of iron, manganese, sulfur and reduce or eliminate
taste and odor problems. Ozone oxides the iron, manganese, and sulfur in
the water to form insoluble metal oxides or elemental sulfur. These
insoluble particles are then removed by post-filtration. Organic particles
and chemicals will be eliminated through either coagulation or chemical
oxidation. Ozone is unstable, and it will degrade over a time frame ranging from a few seconds to 30 minutes. The rate of
degradation is a function of water chemistry, pH and water temperature.
The formation of oxygen into ozone occurs with the use of energy. This process is carried out by an electric discharge field as in the CD-type ozone generators (corona discharge simulation of the lightning), or by ultraviolet radiation as in UV-type ozone generators (simulation of the ultraviolet rays from the sun). In addition to these commercial methods, ozone may also be made through electrolytic and chemical reactions. In general, an ozonation system includes passing dry, clean air through a high voltage electric discharge, i.e., corona discharge, which creates and ozone concentration of approximately 1% or 10,000 mg/L. In treating small quantities of waste, the UV ozonators are the most common, while large-scale systems use either corona discharge or other bulk ozone-producing methods.
The raw water is then passed through a venturi throat which creates a vacuum and pulls the ozone gas into the water or the air is then bubbled up through the water being treated. Since the ozone will react with metals to create insoluble metal oxides, post filtration is required.
Primary Advantages to Ozone
1. Ozone is effect over a wide pH range and rapidly reacts with bacteria, viruses, and protozoans and has stronger germicidal properties then chlorination. Has a very strong oxidizing power with a short reaction time.
2.The treatment process does not add chemicals to the water.
3. Ozone can eliminate a wide variety of inorganic, organic and microbiological problems and taste and odor problems. The microbiological agents include bacteria, viruses, and protozons (such as: Giardia and Cryptosporidium).
Disadvantages to Ozone
1. There is a higher equipment and operational cost and it may be more difficult to find professional proficient in ozone treatment and system maintenance.
2. Ozonation provides no germicidal or disinfection residual to inhibit or prevent regrowth.
3. Ozonation by-products are still being evaluated and it is possible that some by-products by be carcinogenic. These may include brominated by-products, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. This is one reason that the post filtration system may include an activate carbon filter.
4.System may require pretreatment for hardness reduction or the additional of polyphosphate to prevent formation of carbonate scale.
5.Ozone is less soluble in water, compared to chlorine, and therefore special mixing techniques are needed.
6.Potential fire hazards and toxicity issues associated with ozone generation.
Learn More about ozone water treatment and other applications.
Small Flows Clearinghouse - PDF on Ozone
Water Treatment Training Courses
At Home Bacterial Testing Kit
UV Disinfection Systems
Whole House Water Treatment System
Online Training Courses
LEED- AP / Green Associate Training/
Professional Development Hours Courses
Education on the Go - Online Training Programs (Self-Paced)
Alternative Energy and Green Technologies
Energy Auditor Training Program
Water Treatment, Wastewater Treatment,
and Stormwater Design, Operation, and Management
For More information, please contact:
Mr. Brian Oram, Professional Geologist (PG)
Water Research Center
B.F. Environmental Consultants Inc.
15 Hillcrest Drive
Dallas, PA 18612
Technology Outreach Program |
Drinking Water Help Guides | Contact
Available Test Parameters
Research Interests, Funded Research and Applied Research
Homeowner Information Water Testing
Environmental Topics - Infiltration, Permeability, Soil Science,
Wellhead Protection, Groundwater, Watersheds
Continuing Education Courses - OSHA Training, Engineers, Geologists,
Sustainability, Architects, LEED Professionals
Monitoring, Research, Training,
Lake and Watershed Studies, Citizen Monitoring, Volunteer Monitoring Programs
The Water Library - Pdf files on Water Issues and Topics
Tools for Environmental Professionals, Citizens, and Students
Field Training and Workshops in Earth Science
Affiliations and Hot Links
| Search Our Site|
Website Designed by:
Web Design Pros.net